The pair protocol implements a peer-to-peer pattern, where relationships between peers are one-to-one.
Version 1 of this protocol supports an optional polyamorous mode where a peer can maintain multiple partnerships. Using this mode requires some additional sophistication in the application.
nng_pair_open() functions create a pair socket.
Normally, this pattern will block when attempting to send a message if no peer is able to receive the message.
Even though this mode may appear to be "reliable", because back-pressure
prevents discarding messages most of the time, there are topologies involving
In order to avoid head-of-line blocking conditions, polyamorous mode pair sockets (version 1 only) discard messages if they are unable to deliver them to a peer.
Version 0 is the legacy version of this protocol. It lacks any header information, and is suitable when building simple one-to-one topologies.
|Use version 0 if you need to communicate with other implementations, including the legacy nanomsg library or mangos.|
Version 1 of the protocol offers improved protection against loops when
It also offers polyamorous mode for forming multiple partnerships
on a single socket.
|Version 1 of this protocol is considered experimental at this time.|
Normally pair sockets are for one-to-one communication, and a given peer will reject new connections if it already has an active connection to another peer.
In polyamorous mode, which is only available with version 1, a socket can
support many one-to-one connections.
In this mode, the application must
choose the remote peer to receive an outgoing message by setting the
nng_pipe to use for the outgoing message with
Most often the value of the outgoing pipe will be obtained from an incoming
message using the
such as when replying to an incoming message.
In order to prevent head-of-line blocking, if the peer on the given pipe is not able to receive (or the pipe is no longer available, such as if the peer has disconnected), then the message will be discarded with no notification to the sender.
The following protocol-specific options are available.
bool, version 1 only) This option enables the use of polyamorous mode. The value is read-write, and takes an integer Boolean value. The default false value (0) indicates that legacy monogamous mode should be used.
int, version 1 only). Maximum time-to-live.
Version 0 of the pair protocol has no protocol-specific headers.
Version 1 of the pair protocol uses a single 32-bit unsigned value. The
low-order (big-endian) byte of this value contains a "hop" count, and is
used in conjunction with the
NNG_OPT_MAXTTL option to guard against
device forwarding loops.
This value is initialized to 1, and incremented each time the message is
received by a new node.