The ws transport provides communication support between nng sockets across a TCP/IP network using WebSockets. Both IPv4 and IPv6 are supported when the underlying platform also supports it.
The protocol details are documented in WebSocket Mapping for Scalability Protocols.
Depending upon how the library was built, it may be necessary to
register the transport by calling
If TLS support is enabled in the library, secure WebSockets (over TLS v1.2)
can be used as well, but the secure transport may have to be registered using
This transport uses URIs using the scheme
ws://, followed by
an IP address or hostname, optionally followed by a colon and an
TCP port number, optionally followed by a path.
(If no port number is specified then port 80 is assumed.
If no path is specified then a path of
/ is assumed.)
For example, the URI
ws://localhost/app/pubsub would use
port 80 on localhost, with the path
(if enabled) use the scheme
wss://, and the default TCP port number of 443.
Otherwise the format is the same as for regular WebSockets.
When specifying IPv6 addresses, the address must be enclosed in
square brackets (
) to avoid confusion with the final colon
separating the port.
For example, the same path and port on the IPv6 loopback address (
would be specified as
The value specified as the host, if any, will also be used
Host: HTTP header during HTTP negotiation.
To listen to all ports on the system, the host name may be elided from
the URL on the listener. This will wind up listening to all interfaces
on the system, with possible caveats for IPv4 and IPv6 depending on what
the underlying system supports. (On most modern systems it will map to the
special IPv6 address
::, and both IPv4 and IPv6 connections will be
permitted, with IPv4 addresses mapped to IPv6 addresses.)
This transport makes use of shared HTTP server instances, permitting multiple sockets or listeners to be configured with the same hostname and port. When creating a new listener, it is registered with an existing HTTP server instance if one can be found. Note that the matching algorithm is somewhat simple, using only a string based hostname or IP address and port to match. Therefore it is recommended to use only IP addresses or the empty string as the hostname in listener URLs.
Likewise, when sharing a server instance, it may not be possible to alter TLS configuration if the server is already running, as there is only a single TLS configuration context for the entire server instance.
All sharing of server instances is only typically possible within the same process.
The server may also be used by other things (for example to serve static content), in the same process.
The following transport options are available. Note that setting these must be done before the transport is started.
The TLS specific options (beginning with
only available for
(string) Concentation of multiple lines terminated by CRLF sequences, that can be used to add further headers to the HTTP request sent when connecting. This option can be set on dialers, and retrieved from pipes.
(string) Concatenation of multiple lines terminated by CRLF sequences, that can be used to add further headers to the HTTP response sent when connecting. This option can be set on listeners, and retrieved from pipes.
nng_tls_config *) The underlying TLS configuration object for
wss://endpoints. A hold is placed on the underlying configuration object before returning it. The caller should release the object with
nng_tls_config_free()when it no longer needs the TLS configuration.
|Use this option when advanced TLS configuration is required.
(string) Write-only option naming a file containing certificates to use for peer validation. See
nng_tls_config_ca_file()for more information.
(string) Write-only option naming a file containing the local certificate and associated private key. The private key used must be unencrypted. See
nng_tls_config_own_cert()for more information.
int) Write-only option used to configure the authentication mode used. See
nng_tls_config_auth_mode()for more details.
bool) Whether the remote peer has been properly verified using TLS authentication. May return incorrect results if peer authentication is disabled.